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National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO)

The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) carries out socio-economic surveys, undertakes fieldwork for the Annual Survey of Industries and follow-up surveys of the economic census, sample checks on area enumeration and crop estimation surveys and prepares the urban frames useful in drawing of urban samples, besides a collection of price data from rural and urban sectors. The organization functions under the overall direction of a Governing Council with requisite independence and autonomy in the matter of collection, processing and publication of NSS data. In addition to the non-official Chairman, the Governing Council is composed of five academicians, five data users from Central and State Government departments and senior officers of the Ministry. The NSSO is headed by the Director-General and Chief Executive Officer (DG&CEO) who is responsible for coordinating and supervising all activities of the organization and is assisted by a small secretariat called Co-ordination and

Organisational Structure

The term organizational structure reveals an established pattern of relationships among the constituent parts of the organization. It prescribes the relationships among various activities and various positions in an organization. It is nothing but a chart of relationships. Organization structure refers to a system where the work is divided formally. These smaller tasks are gathered and synchronized in order to promote coordination in the organization. It refers to an outline group, individuals, operations systems and job putting efforts to attain stipulated goals. It is the arrangement of jobs that is formally defined. According to Mintzberg (1972), "organizational structure is the framework of relations on jobs, systems, operating process, people and groups making efforts to achieve the goals. Organizational structure is a set of methods dividing the tasks to determining duties and coordinates them." According to Hold and Antony (1991), "Structure is not a coordination

Comparison between the Supreme Court and High Court

Supreme Court High Court The Supreme Court is the Federal Court. Its only seat is located in Delhi. Its bench can be established at other places also, but so far it has not been established. There is a provision for a High Court in each state and each Union Territory but two or more states or two or more union territories, together, may establish a common High Court. The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the President. The judges of the High Court are also appointed by President. A person shall have the following qualification to become eligible for the appointment as judge of the Supreme Court, if He has to be the judge of a High court for not less than five years in succession, or he has been an advocate of a High Court for not less than 10 years in succession, or He is a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President. A person shall not b eligible to become a judge of a High Court unless such a person. has been a judicial officer for not less than

Corporate Restructuring

Corporate restructuring includes various forms of collaborations, such as takeovers, mergers and acquisitions, spin-offs, leveraged buyouts etc. It refers to an alteration or change in the asset mix, ownership, business mix and alliance with another company with an aim to increase shareholder's value. Thus, there is a change in the business capacity and the portfolio of the business is related in order to increase the performance of the company. Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A) are popular among all forms of corporate restructuring. Characteristics of Corporate Restructuring: There is a change in the capacity of the business. There is a change in the capital structure, there is called capital restructuring. The ownership[ of the business changes, this is known as ownership restructuring. When the company diversifies itself into a new venture or when there is divestment, outsourcing, band acquisition then it is called business restructuring. When a firm acquires it sells the ass

Landmarks in the Development of the Indian Constitution

 Regulating Act, 1773: It made a provision of Supreme Court at Fort William, Calcutta, comprising 0one Chief justice and three other judges. It prohibited the company's servanCompany from engaging in any private trade or accepting presents or bribes from the natives. Pitt's India Act, 1784: It made a provision of separation in the compaCompany'sercial and political activities. It created a new body called the Board of Control to manage the political affairs while the Court of Directors was allowed to manage the commercial affairs. The compaCompany'sitories in India were for the first time called British Possessions in India.' Charter Act, 1793: Salaries of the members of the board to be drawn from the Indian exchequer. Charter Act, 1813: The compaCompany'spoly over trade was abolished in India, but its monopoly over trade with China and trade-in tea was retained. The constitutional position of British territories in India was explicitly defined for the first tim

Industrial Buying Behaviour

Industrial buying behavior is the pattern of actions by a company involved in manufacturing, processing and other heavy industry. Many of these companies are required to make regular purchases as a means of supplying their business. Industrial buying behavior is ultimately influenced by forces within the organization as well as environmental forces. The status and operating procedures of purchasing, the degree of involvement and interaction of various group members, and their different perceptions have a significant impact on purchasing decisions. Effective and responsive industrial marketing strategy depends on the industrial marketer's knowledge of how industrial buying behavior is affected by forces within the organization. Factors affecting Industrial Buying Behaviour: Industrial buyers make buying decisions to buy goods for their organization's use to meet organization goals and objectives. They use their skills and buying methods to get the best deal from the sellers or s

Personal Selling

 Personal selling consists of individual and personal communication in contrast to mass advertising communication. According to Cundiff and Still , "Personal selling is basically a method of communication. It involves not only individual but also social behavior each of the person in face-to-face contrast salesman and prospect influence the other." It is face-to-face interaction with one or more prospective buyers for the purpose of making presentations, answering doubts and taking purchase orders. Qualities of Personal Selling: Personal selling is the most effective tool at later stages of the buying process in building up brand preference, conviction and buying decision. Personal selling or salesmanship has four main qualities: Personal Interaction: Personal selling creates an immediate and interactive episode between two or more persons. Each party can observe the other's reaction. Cultivation: Personal selling also permits all kinds of relationships to spring up, r

Theories and Approaches of Management

Scientific Management (Taylor's Theory): This theory synthesized and evaluates the workflows of an organization. It aims at enhancing labor productivity and economic efficiency. Thus, it applies science, processes and standards in management. Administrative Theory (Fayol's Theory): Henry Fayol propounded the theory and gave 14 principles for general management and administration . It is also known as administrative theory. It gives a broader concept of the process of management. Bureaucracy (Max Weber): This theory aims at providing a systematic framework of an ideal organization, which strives at achieving economic effectiveness and efficiency. It also structures a company of institutions in a hierarchical form with defined levels of management. Hawthrone Experiments: These were a series of experiments that were conducted in the 1920s. It discovered that laborers are extremely responsive to any form of additional attention given to them by their managers. This theory propo

Organisational Development

Organisational Development (OD) is the act, process or result of furthering, advancing or promoting the growth of an organization. Development is the act, mechanism, consequence or state of development, which in turn means advancing, promoting growth, developing the possibility of improving or improving something. The OD strategy to change treats the organization as a system. it is a logically linked group of elements, principles and ideals. Conversely, it is a grouping or arrangement that interacts or communicates in such a way that a whole is formed. Thus, it views the organization as a whole and forms a relationship between the internal dynamics of the organization with the environment. It deals with interpersonal communication and self-acceptance of developing new abilities and skills. According to Edgar Schein, "An organization is the planned coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goals through the division

Operation Management

 It involves planning, organizing and directing processes in order to attain higher profitability. Operations management was previously known as production management where the entire focus was on manufacturing. However, today operations management is a multidisciplinary area that works with finance and marketing. It ensures that the labor, material and other inputs are used efficiently. It is based on various disciplines and draws principles from general management. Principles of Operations Management: Dr Richard J Schonberger has developed 16 principles of which are as follows: Visibility Management: Promoting organizational achievement and let the external market learn about productivity, improvement in competency. Fix Cause: Paying attention to the root causes which hamper and obstruct the performance and affect cost. Total Quality Control (TQC): Using only best processes, procedures, materials and other inputs. Pull System: Improving the workflow and cutting down any wastage