Skip to main content


National Bio-fuel Policy

The National Policy on Bio-fuels (2009) endeavours to facilitate and bring about optimal development and utilisation of indigenous biomass feedstocks for production of bio-fuels. The policy also envisages development of the next generation of more efficient bio-fuel conversion technologies based on new feedstocks. The policy sets out the vision, medium-term goals, strategy and approach to bio-fuel development, and proposes a framework of technological, financial and institutional interventions and enabling mechanisms. The policy aims at mainstreaming of bio-fuels and, therefore, envisions a central role for it in the energy and transportation sectors of the country in the coming decades. The policy will bring about accelerated development and promotion of the cultivation, production and use of bio-fuels to increasingly substitute petrol and diesel for transport and be used in stationary and other applications, while contributing to energy security, climate change mitigation, apart fro

National Environment Policy

The objectives of the National Environment Policy (2006) are mentioned below: To protect and conserve critical ecological systems and resources, and invaluable natural and man-made heritage, which are essential for life support, livelihoods, economic growth, and a broad conception of human well-being. To ensure equitable access to environmental resources and quality for all sections of society, and in particular, to ensure that poor communities, which are most dependent on environmental resources for their livelihoods, are assured secure access to these resources. To ensure judicious use of environmental resources to meet the needs and aspirations of the present and future generations. To integrate environmental concerns into policies, plans, programmes, and projects for economic and social development. To ensure efficient use of environmental resources in the sense of reduction in their use per unit of economic output, to minimise adverse environmental impacts. To apply the principles

National Water Policy

 The first National Water Policy was adopted in 1987. This policy was revised in 2002 and again in 2012. The new National Water Policy of 2012 was formulated to ensure sustainable and equitable development taking into consideration the likely impact due to climate change. The salient features of this policy are as follows: Safe water for drinking and sanitation should be considered as pre-emptive needs, followed by high priority allocation for other basic domestic needs (including needs of animals), achieving food security, supporting sustenance agriculture and minimum eco-system needs. Available water, after meeting the above needs, should be allocated in a manner to promote its conservation and efficient use. There is a need to evolve a National Water Framework Law as an umbrella statement of general principles governing the exercise of legislative and/or executive (or devolved) powers by the Centre, the States and the local governing bodies. There is a need for comprehensive legisla

National Tribal Policy

A draft National Tribal Policy was formulated in 2006. It covers all important issues that concern tribals. Its objectives are as follows: Preservation of traditional and customary systems and regime of rights and concessions enjoyed by different ST communities. Preventing alienation of land owned by STs and restoring possession of wrongfully alienated lands. Protection and vesting of rights of STs on forest lands and other forest rights. Providing a legislative frame for rehabilitation and resettlement in order to minimise displacement. Empowerment of tribal communities to promote self-governance and self-rule. Protection of political rights to ensure greater and active participation of tribals in political bodies at all levels. Reducing and removing the gap in the HDI of the tribal population and the general population. Ensuring access to health care services, safe drinking water and improved sanitation. Increase the participation of STs in sports and culture at local, district state

National Telecom Policy

The vision of the National Telecom Policy (2012) is to provide secure, reliable, affordable and high quality converged telecommunication services anytime, anywhere for an accelerated inclusive  socioeconomic development. The objectives/thrust areas of the policy are as follows: Increase rural tele-density from the current level of around 39 to 70 by the year 2017 and 100 by the year 2020. Provide affordable and reliable broadband-on-demand by the year 2015 and to achieve 175 million broadband connections by the year 2017 and 600 million by the year 2020 at minimum 2 Mbps download speed and making available higher speeds of at least 100 Mbps on demand. Enable citizens to participate in and contribute to e-governance in key sectors like health, education, skill development, employment, governance, banking, etc. to ensure equitable and inclusive growth. Provide high speed and high quality broadband access to all village panchayats through a combination of technologies by the year 2014 and

National Manufacturing Policy

In 2011, the government announced a National Manufacturing Policy to bring about a quantitative and qualitative change with the following six objectives: Increase manufacturing sector growth to 12-14% over the medium-term to make it the engine of growth for the economy. The 2 to 4% differential over the medium-term growth rate of the overall economy will enable manufacturing to contribute atleast 25% of the National GDP by 2022. Increase the rate of job creation in manufacturing to create 100 million additional jobs by 2022. Creation of appropriate skill sets among the rural migrant and urban poor to make growth inclusive. Increase domestic value addition and technological ‘depth’ in manufacturing. Enhance global competitiveness of Indian manufacturing through appropriate policy support. Ensure sustainability of growth, particularly with regards to the environment including energy efficiency, optimal utilisation of natural resources and restoration of damaged/ degraded ecosystems. Spec

National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy

The National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (2007) seeks to promote various types of public private partnerships for realising the goal of “Affordable Housing For All” with special emphasis on the urban poor. The salient features of the policy are as follows: Role of housing and provision of basic services to the urban poor has been integrated into the objectives of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). Special emphasis has been laid on Scheduled Castes/Tribes/Backward Classes/Minorities, Empowerment of Women within the ambit of the urban poor. The policy focuses on a symbiotic development of rural and urban areas in line with the objectives of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act. Emphasis has been laid on urban planning, increased supply of land, use of spatial incentives like additional Floor Area Ratio (FAR), Transferable Development Rights, etc., increased flow of funds, healthy environment, effective solid waste management and use of renewal sources of en

National Agriculture Policy

The first ever National Agriculture Policy was announced in 2000. The policy seeks to actualise the vast untapped growth potential of Indian agriculture, strengthen rural infrastructure to support faster agricultural development, promote value addition, accelerate the growth of agro business, create employment in rural areas, secure a fair standard of living for the farmers and agricultural workers and their families, discourage migration to urban areas and face the challenges arising out of economic liberalisation and globalisation. Over the next two decades, the policy aims to attain: A growth rate in excess of four per cent per annum in the agriculture sector. The policy seeks to promote technically sound, economically viable, environmentally nondegrading, and socially acceptable use of country’s natural resources – land, water and genetic endowment to promote sustainable development of agriculture. The use of bio-technologies will be promoted for evolving plants which consume less

Charter Act of 1853

This was the last of the series of Charter Acts passed by the British Parliament between 1793 and 1853. It was a significant constitutional landmark. The features of Charter Act of 1853 were as follows: It separated, for the first time, the legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council. It provided for addition of six new members called legislative councillors to the council. In other words, it established a separate Governor-General’s legislative council which came to be known as the Indian (Central) Legislative Council. This legislative wing of the council functioned as a mini-Parliament, adopting the same procedures as the British Parliament. Thus, legislation, for the first time, was treated as a special function of the government, requiring special machinery and special process. It introduced an open competition system of selection and recruitment of civil servants. The covenanted civil service was, thus, thrown open to the Indians also. Accordingly, the Ma

Programs and Funds of United Nations

1. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF): UNICEF became a permanent part of the United Nations system in 1953, when its name was shortened to United Nations Children's Fund. However, UNICEF retained its original acronym. It is headquartered in New York (USA). It aims to provide a better quality of life to children and mothers in developing countries through improved health services, nutrition, sanitation, water availability and education. UNICEF brings annual report titled The State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF received the noble peace prize in 1965 "'for the promotion of botherhood among nations". UNICEF was established on 11 December 1946 by the united nations to meet the emergency needs of children in post-war Europe and China. Its full name was the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. in 1950, its mandate was broadened to address the long term needs of children and women in developing countries. 2. UN Development Programme (UNDP): UN