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National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy

The National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy (2007) seeks to promote various types of public private partnerships for realising the goal of “Affordable Housing For All” with special emphasis on the urban poor. The salient features of the policy are as follows: Role of housing and provision of basic services to the urban poor has been integrated into the objectives of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). Special emphasis has been laid on Scheduled Castes/Tribes/Backward Classes/Minorities, Empowerment of Women within the ambit of the urban poor. The policy focuses on a symbiotic development of rural and urban areas in line with the objectives of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act. Emphasis has been laid on urban planning, increased supply of land, use of spatial incentives like additional Floor Area Ratio (FAR), Transferable Development Rights, etc., increased flow of funds, healthy environment, effective solid waste management and use of renewal sources of en

National Agriculture Policy

The first ever National Agriculture Policy was announced in 2000. The policy seeks to actualise the vast untapped growth potential of Indian agriculture, strengthen rural infrastructure to support faster agricultural development, promote value addition, accelerate the growth of agro business, create employment in rural areas, secure a fair standard of living for the farmers and agricultural workers and their families, discourage migration to urban areas and face the challenges arising out of economic liberalisation and globalisation. Over the next two decades, the policy aims to attain: A growth rate in excess of four per cent per annum in the agriculture sector. The policy seeks to promote technically sound, economically viable, environmentally nondegrading, and socially acceptable use of country’s natural resources – land, water and genetic endowment to promote sustainable development of agriculture. The use of bio-technologies will be promoted for evolving plants which consume less

Charter Act of 1853

This was the last of the series of Charter Acts passed by the British Parliament between 1793 and 1853. It was a significant constitutional landmark. The features of Charter Act of 1853 were as follows: It separated, for the first time, the legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council. It provided for addition of six new members called legislative councillors to the council. In other words, it established a separate Governor-General’s legislative council which came to be known as the Indian (Central) Legislative Council. This legislative wing of the council functioned as a mini-Parliament, adopting the same procedures as the British Parliament. Thus, legislation, for the first time, was treated as a special function of the government, requiring special machinery and special process. It introduced an open competition system of selection and recruitment of civil servants. The covenanted civil service was, thus, thrown open to the Indians also. Accordingly, the Ma

Programs and Funds of United Nations

1. UN Children's Fund (UNICEF): UNICEF became a permanent part of the United Nations system in 1953, when its name was shortened to United Nations Children's Fund. However, UNICEF retained its original acronym. It is headquartered in New York (USA). It aims to provide a better quality of life to children and mothers in developing countries through improved health services, nutrition, sanitation, water availability and education. UNICEF brings annual report titled The State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF received the noble peace prize in 1965 "'for the promotion of botherhood among nations". UNICEF was established on 11 December 1946 by the united nations to meet the emergency needs of children in post-war Europe and China. Its full name was the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. in 1950, its mandate was broadened to address the long term needs of children and women in developing countries. 2. UN Development Programme (UNDP): UN

Indian Councils Act of 1909

Indian Councils Act of 1909 is also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (Lord Morley was the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India). The features of Indian Councils Act of 1909 were as follows: It considerably increased the size of the legislative councils, both Central and provincial. The number of members in the Central legislative council was raised from 16 to 60. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform. It retained official majority in the Central legislative council, but allowed the provincial legislative councils to have nonofficial majority. It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget and so on. It provided (for the first time) for the association of Indians with the executive councils of the Viceroy and Governors. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join t

National Policy on Information Technology

The vision of the National Policy on Information Technology (2012) is to strengthen and enhance India’s position as the Global IT hub and to use IT and cyber space as an engine for rapid, inclusive and substantial growth in the national economy. The policy seeks to achieve the twin goals of bringing the full power of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) within the reach of the whole of India and harnessing the capability and human resources of the whole of India to enable India to emerge as the Global Hub and Destination for IT and ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) by 2020. The focus of the policy is therefore on deployment of ICT in all sectors of the economy and on providing IT solutions to the world. The objectives/thrust areas of the policy are as follows: To increase revenues of IT and ITES Industry from 100 Billion USD currently to 300 Billion USD by 2020 and expand exports from 69 Billion USD currently to 200 Billion USD by 2020. To gain significant globa

Indian Councils Act of 1892

The features of Indian Councils Act of 1892 were as follows: It increased the number of additional (non-official) members in the Central and provincial legislative councils, but maintained the official majority in them. It increased the functions of legislative councils and gave them the power of discussing the budget and addressing questions to the executive. It provided for the nomination of some non-official members of the (a) Central Legislative Council by the viceroy on the recommendation of the provincial legislative councils and the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, and (b) that of the provincial legislative councils by the Governors on the recommendation of the district boards, municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamin-dars and chambers. ‘The act made a limited and indirect provision for the use of election in filling up some of the non-official seats both in the Central and provincial legislative councils. The word “election” was, however, not used in the Act. The proc

Indian Councils Act of 1861

After the great revolt of 1857, the British Government felt the necessity of seeking the cooperation of the Indians in then administration of their country. In pursuance of this policy of association, three acts were enacted by the British Parliament in 1861, 1892 and 1909. The Indian Councils Act of 1861 is an important landmark in the constitutional and political history of India. The features of Indian Councils Act of 1861 were as follows: It made a beginning of the representative institutions by associating Indians with the law-making process. It, thus, provided that the Viceroy should nominate some Indians as non-official members of his expanded council. In 1862, Lord Canning, the then Viceroy, nominated three Indians to his legislative council–the Raja of Benaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao. It initiated the process of decentralisation by restoring the legislative powers to the Bombay and Madras Presidencies. It, thus, reversed the centralising tendency that start

Government of India Act of 1858

This significant Act was enacted in the wake of the Revolt of 1857 also known as the First War of Independence or the ‘sepoy mutiny’. The act known as the Act for the Good Government of India, abolished the East India Company, and transferred the powers of Government, territories and revenues to the British Crown. The features of Government of India Act of 1858 were as follows: It provided that India, henceforth, was to be governed by, and in the name of, Her Majesty. It changed the designation of the Governor-General of India to that of Viceroy of India. He (Viceroy) was the direct representative of the British Crown in India. Lord Canning, thus, became the first Viceroy of India. It ended the system of double Government by abolishing the Board of Control and Court of Directors. It created a new office, Secretary of State for India, vested with complete authority and control over Indian administration. The secretary of state was a member of the British Cabinet and was responsible ulti

Charter Act of 1833

 This Act was the final step towards centralisation in British India. Features of the Act: It made the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India and vested in him all civil and military powers. Thus, the act created, for the first time, a Government of India having authority over the entire territorial area possessed by the British in India. Lord William Bentick was the first governor-general of India. It deprived the governor of Bombay and Madras of their legislative powers. The Governor-General of India was given exclusive legislative powers for the entire British India. The laws made under the previous acts were called as Regulations while laws made under this act were called as Acts. It ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body, which became a purely administrative body. It provided that the company’s territories in India were held by it ‘in trust for His Majesty, His heirs and successors’. The Charter Act of 1833 attempted to introduce a