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Indian Councils Act of 1909

Indian Councils Act of 1909 is also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (Lord Morley was the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India). The features of Indian Councils Act of 1909 were as follows: It considerably increased the size of the legislative councils, both Central and provincial. The number of members in the Central legislative council was raised from 16 to 60. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform. It retained official majority in the Central legislative council, but allowed the provincial legislative councils to have nonofficial majority. It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget and so on. It provided (for the first time) for the association of Indians with the executive councils of the Viceroy and Governors. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join t

National Policy on Information Technology

The vision of the National Policy on Information Technology (2012) is to strengthen and enhance India’s position as the Global IT hub and to use IT and cyber space as an engine for rapid, inclusive and substantial growth in the national economy. The policy seeks to achieve the twin goals of bringing the full power of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) within the reach of the whole of India and harnessing the capability and human resources of the whole of India to enable India to emerge as the Global Hub and Destination for IT and ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) by 2020. The focus of the policy is therefore on deployment of ICT in all sectors of the economy and on providing IT solutions to the world. The objectives/thrust areas of the policy are as follows: To increase revenues of IT and ITES Industry from 100 Billion USD currently to 300 Billion USD by 2020 and expand exports from 69 Billion USD currently to 200 Billion USD by 2020. To gain significant globa

Indian Councils Act of 1892

The features of Indian Councils Act of 1892 were as follows: It increased the number of additional (non-official) members in the Central and provincial legislative councils, but maintained the official majority in them. It increased the functions of legislative councils and gave them the power of discussing the budget and addressing questions to the executive. It provided for the nomination of some non-official members of the (a) Central Legislative Council by the viceroy on the recommendation of the provincial legislative councils and the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, and (b) that of the provincial legislative councils by the Governors on the recommendation of the district boards, municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamin-dars and chambers. ‘The act made a limited and indirect provision for the use of election in filling up some of the non-official seats both in the Central and provincial legislative councils. The word “election” was, however, not used in the Act. The proc

Indian Councils Act of 1861

After the great revolt of 1857, the British Government felt the necessity of seeking the cooperation of the Indians in then administration of their country. In pursuance of this policy of association, three acts were enacted by the British Parliament in 1861, 1892 and 1909. The Indian Councils Act of 1861 is an important landmark in the constitutional and political history of India. The features of Indian Councils Act of 1861 were as follows: It made a beginning of the representative institutions by associating Indians with the law-making process. It, thus, provided that the Viceroy should nominate some Indians as non-official members of his expanded council. In 1862, Lord Canning, the then Viceroy, nominated three Indians to his legislative council–the Raja of Benaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao. It initiated the process of decentralisation by restoring the legislative powers to the Bombay and Madras Presidencies. It, thus, reversed the centralising tendency that start

Government of India Act of 1858

This significant Act was enacted in the wake of the Revolt of 1857 also known as the First War of Independence or the ‘sepoy mutiny’. The act known as the Act for the Good Government of India, abolished the East India Company, and transferred the powers of Government, territories and revenues to the British Crown. The features of Government of India Act of 1858 were as follows: It provided that India, henceforth, was to be governed by, and in the name of, Her Majesty. It changed the designation of the Governor-General of India to that of Viceroy of India. He (Viceroy) was the direct representative of the British Crown in India. Lord Canning, thus, became the first Viceroy of India. It ended the system of double Government by abolishing the Board of Control and Court of Directors. It created a new office, Secretary of State for India, vested with complete authority and control over Indian administration. The secretary of state was a member of the British Cabinet and was responsible ulti

Charter Act of 1833

 This Act was the final step towards centralisation in British India. Features of the Act: It made the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India and vested in him all civil and military powers. Thus, the act created, for the first time, a Government of India having authority over the entire territorial area possessed by the British in India. Lord William Bentick was the first governor-general of India. It deprived the governor of Bombay and Madras of their legislative powers. The Governor-General of India was given exclusive legislative powers for the entire British India. The laws made under the previous acts were called as Regulations while laws made under this act were called as Acts. It ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body, which became a purely administrative body. It provided that the company’s territories in India were held by it ‘in trust for His Majesty, His heirs and successors’. The Charter Act of 1833 attempted to introduce a

Charter Act of 1813

The features of Charter Act of 1813 were as follows: It abolished the trade monopoly of the company in India i.e., the Indian trade was thrown open to all British merchants. However, it continued the monopoly of the company over trade in tea and trade with China. It asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Company’s territories in India. It allowed the Christian missionaries to come to India for the purpose of enlightening the people. It provided for the spread of western education among the inhabitants of the British territories in India. It authorised the Local Governments in India to impose taxes on persons. They could also punish the persons for not paying taxes.

Pitt’s India Act of 1784

The next important act was the Pitt’s India Act of 1784. The features of this Act were as follows: It distinguished between the commercial and political functions of the Company. It allowed the Court of Directors to manage the commercial affairs, but created a new body called Board of Control to manage the political affairs. Thus, it established a system of double government. It empowered the Board of Control to supervise and direct all operations of the civil and military government or revenues of the British possessions in India. Thus, the act was significant for two reasons: first, the Company’s territories in India were for the first time called the ‘British possessions in India’; and second, the British Government was given the supreme control over Company’s affairs and its administration in India.

Charter Act of 1793

The features of Charter Act of 1793 were as follows: It extended the overriding power given to Lord Cornwallish over his council, to all future Governor-Generals and Governors of Presidencies. It gave the Governor-General more powers and control over the governments of the subordinate Presidencies of Bombay and Madras. It extended the trade monopoly of the Company in India for another period of twenty years. It provided that the Commander-in-Chief was not to be a member of the Governor-General’s council, unless he was so appointed. It laid down that the members of the Board of Control and their staff were, henceforth, to be paid out of the Indian revenues.

National Population Policy

A National Population Policy was adopted in 2000. It provides a framework for advancing goals and prioritising strategies during the next decade to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the people of India. It states that the objective of economic and social development is to improve the quality of lives people lead to enhance their well-being and to provide them with opportunities and choices to become productive assets in society. The objectives of the policy are mentioned below: The immediate objective is to address the un-met needs for contraception, health care infrastructure and health personnel and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care. The medium-term objective is to bring the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to replacement levels by 2010, through a vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies. The long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045, at a level consistent with the requirements of su