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Religion, Script of Harappans and Decline of Harappan Civilization

Religion of Harappans Pashupati seal has been found from Mohenjodaro in which a Yogi figure has been depicted. The Yogi on the seal is surrounded by buffalo, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros and deer. hence, the Yogi is said to be proto-Shiva. Signs of phallic worship have been found. Harappans worshiped Mother Goddess. It is evident from the terracotta figurine recovered from Harappa. A building called Great Bath have been found at meant for ritual bathing. They were superstitious as they wore amulets. Harappans worshiped pipal tree. No evidence of temples have been found in the civilization. Script of Harrapans: The Harappans knew the art of writing. There are nearly 4,000 specimens of Harappan writing on stone seals and other objects. The Harappan script is not alphabetical but many pictographic. The Harappan script has not been deciphered so far. Script was considered of about 400 symbols, out of which 75 were original and remaining were their variants. Decline

About Four Anglo-Mysore Wars

The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of four wars fought in India over the three decades of the 18th century between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore. The fourth war ended with a result in the overthrow of the house of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and the dismantlement of Mysore to the benefit of the British East India Company, which won and took control of much of India. 1. First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-1769) In 1767 Mysore was a powerful state under Hyder Ali. In 1769, the first Anglo-Mysore war was fought in which Haider Ali defeated the British and Treaty of Madras was signed between them. Haider Ali occupied almost the whole of Carnatic. 2. Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe, which was in Haider Ali's territory. Haider Ali led a joint front with Nizam and Marathas and captured Arcot (Capital of Carnatic State). In July 1781, Haider Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Eyre Coote and saved Madras. In Dec

Policies of British Empire in India

The administrative policy of the Company underwent frequent changes during the long period between 1757 to 1857. To increase the Company's profit and to be sustainable for long term the British hold over India, they have passed many acts in India during there period so that trade and exploitation of resources with India can be carried on without an disturbances. Economic Policy in India by Britishers The East India company was a purely trading company dealings with import of goods and precious metals into India and export of species and textiles. The East Indian Company used revenue from Bengal to finance experts of Indian goods. The Company used its political power to monopoly trade and dictate terms to the weavers of Bengal. Land Revenue System in India by Britishers Zamindari System Zamindari System (Permanent Settlement) was introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and districts of Banaras and northern districts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793. John Shore plan

Important Acts in India Before Independence

Some of the Important acts in Indian before Independence August 15th 1947 are The Regulating Act, 1773, The Pitts India act, 1784, The Charter Acts The Government of India Acts and The Indian council Acts. The Regulating Act, 1773 The Regulating Act, 1773 was the first attempted by British Parliament to regulate the affairs of the Company in India. this act also brought an end to Dual system of Government of India. This was the first attempt towards Centralised Administration. In this act, Governor of Bengal became Governor General for all British territories in India. Bombay and Madras Presidency subordinated to Bengal Presidency in certain matters. Supreme Court to be set up at Calcutta and also founded Calcutta Madarasa. The Pitts India Act, 1784 The Pitts India Act, 1784 ( The East India Company Act 1784 ) gave the British Government supreme control over the Company's affairs and its administration in India. It established dual system of governance: Government

Introduction to Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) from 2350-1750 BC

Indus Valley Civilization (2350-1750 BC) is also called as Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first site to be excavated in 1921 under the supervision of Daya Ram Sahni . The known extent of the civilization in the west is upto Sutkagendor in Baluchistan; Alamgirpur South; and Manda (Jammu and Kashmir) in the north. Indus Valley civilization belongs to Bronge Age/ Chalcolithic age. Hence, it is also called bronze age civilization. Contemporary civilizations of Harappan civilization are Mesopotamian or Sumerian civilization, Egyptian civilization and Chinese civilization. Important Sites of Harappan Civilization S.No Site Location River bank 1 Harappa Montegomari, Punjab (Pakistan) Ravi 2 Mohenjodaro Larkana, Sindh (Pakistan) Indus 3 Sutkagenoor Baluchistan (Pakistan) Dashta 4 Chanhudaro Sindh (Pakistan) Indus 5 Rangpur Ahmedabad (India) Meedar 6 Kalibangan Ganganagar (Ra

The Advent of European Companies in India

In 1453, land routes were blocked by Ottoman Turks. So, new sea routes discovered by the Europeans to promote their business. Colombus of Spain discovered America where as in 1498, Vasco-da-Gama of Portugal discovered India. He came to India via Cape of Good Hope (Africa). First of all, Vasco-da-Gama reached to Calicut (Kerla or Kozhicode) where Zamorin ruler welcomed his arrival. The Portugese soon established political power along the west coast of India. he was succeeded by Captain General Alfonso de Albuquerque who conquered Goa in 1510. Sequence of Arrivals:- Company Year H.Q./Capital Potugese East Indian company (Formed by Vasco-da-Gama) 1498 Cochin (1510-30), Goa (1530-1961) Dutch East India Company 1602 East coast; Coromandal, Pulicut, Bengal English East India Company 1608 West coast: Surat, Bombay east coast: Coromandal, Masulipatanam, Madras. French East India Company (Formed by Colbert) 1664 Surat (1668-73), Pondi