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The Peninsular Plateau of India

The Peninsular Plateau is a part of the ancient Gondwanaland and is in triangular shape. This plateau average height is between 600 to 900 m. It extends from alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar towards south and encompasses whole of the peninsula. Important Ranges in Peninsular Plateau The Aravali range: It is one of the oldest mountain ranges of the world of pre-cambrian period and is about 700 km long. It compares with applications mountain of USA. Aravalis are under the process of erosion and are called Relict mountains. It is also known as ' museum of minerals ' because majority of minerals are found here. It extends from Gujarat to Delhi and its last extension is Raisina hills in Delhi, over which Rashtrapati Bhavan is located. Gir mountains: These are located in Kathiawar region in Gujarat. This region is famous for Asiatic lions (Gir Lions). Western Ghats (Sahyadris): The Western Ghats extends from the mount of the river Tapi to the Cape of Kanyak

Coastal Plains of India

To the east and west of the peninsular plateau , two narrow strips of plain lands are found , which are respectively called Eastern Coastal Plain and Western Coastal Plain. Eastern Coastal and Western Coastal Plain are formed by the erosional and depositional & activities of the Sea waves and from the sediments brought by the peninsular rivers. Western Coastal plain Westeren coastal plain is 10 to 15 km wide and is narrower than eastern coastal plain. Western coast is divided into 4 parts: Kathiawar coast (Gujarat coast) Konkan coast (Maharstra coast) Canara coast(Karnataka coast) Malabar coast (Kerala coast) The Gujarat coastal plains are built up by alluvium brought by Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and Tapti rivers, all of which form large estuaries. Malabar coast contains lakes, lagoons and backwaters locally called Kayals. Vembaned Lake (Kerala) is largest of such back water lakes. Eastern Coastal plain Eastern coastal plain is 50 to 60 km wide and is bro

Classification of Soils in India

According to ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) soils are divided into 8 categories. they are alluvial soils, Black cotton soils, Red soils, Laterite soils, Mountainous or forest soils, Arid or desert soils, Saline and alkaline soils Peaty and marshy soils. Image source : mapsofindia.com Alluvial Soils: Alluvial soils cover 24% of land surface in India and is found in Indo Ganga - Brahmaputra plain, coastal plains and river valleys. These are also found in foothills regions in plenty. It contains sand, loam and clay in different proportion. There are two types of alluvial soils: Khadar - which are newer alluvium. it is the soil deposited by the rivers every year. It is more fertile than the Bangar. Bangar - which are older alluvium. It contains pebbles and calcium carbonates. The colour of alluvium soils can be grey, light brown or yellowish. these soils are very rich in chemicals like Potash, Phosphoric acid, lime and carbon compounds but are deficient in

Water Transport in India

The Water transport provides the Cheapest source of transportation to any country. At present, there are about 14,500 km long navigable waterways in India. The length of water ways in India is maximum in Uttar Pradesh followed by West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Kerla. The Buckingham Canal (640 km) long is the longest navigable canal of the country. The Internal Waterways Authority of India was established in 1986 for the purpose of development maintenance and regulation of the internal waterways of India. Its headquarters is in Kolkata. Inland Water Transport Inland water transport only accounts for 0.15% of domestic transportation. Some of the important inland waterways are: NW-1: Haldia (West Bengal) to Allahabad (1620 kms) on river Ganga. NW-2: Dibrigarh (assam) to Dhuburi (Assam, 891 km) on river Brahmaputra. NW-3: kollam (Kerla) to Kottapuram (Kerla) on West Coast (168 kms) along with Champakare canal (14 km) and Udyogmandal Canal (23 kms). NW-4: Kakinada

Rail Transport in India

The first passenger train in India was started by Lord Dalhousie, Governor-General of India on April 16, 1853, between Bori Bunder, Bombay, and Thane covering a distance of 34 km. Indian Railway was nationalised in 1951 and presently, it is the largest Railway Network in Asia and the second largest railway network in the World. There are three types of rail lines in India: Broad Gauge (1676 mm) Meter Gauge (1000 mm) Narrow Gauge (762 mm) In 2015, Indian Railway consists of 108,706 km route comprising Broad Gauge (88,547 km), Meter Gauge (16,489 km) and Narrow Gauge (3450 km). The total number of Railway Zones in India is 16 and the largest Railway Zone is North Zone . Progress of Locomotives in India 1893: First railway foundry was set up at Jamalpur (Bihar). 1895:  The first locomotive was built with old pairs at Ajmer workshop. 1899: Lady Curzon was the first locomotive built in India, at Ajmer. January 26, 1950: Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (CL

Flood and Drought Affected Areas in India

In India, the regional and seasonal distribution of rainfall is uneven. On the one hand, Jaislamer receives less than 9 cm of annual rainfall and on the other hand, Mawsynram, near Cherapunji, receives more than 1140 cm of annual rainfall. Similarly, most of the rainfall in India is received in the months of June, July, August and September. Generally, variations in the amount of rainfall are found more in the regions where the rainfall is uneven and less and these regions are more affected by droughts. Droughts Drought is an abnormally long dry season, which creates a clear imbalance in the availability of water. both, the vagaries of monsoon and dominant factor, which cause drought and drought like conditions. The irrigation commission, on the basis of the amount of rainfall and its variability, has divided the drought affected areas into two types: Drought Areas: Drought areas have annual rainfall less than 50 cm and variability is more than 25%. Under these areas are in