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Showing posts from January, 2022

Retail Marketing

Retail marketing includes activities and processes of selling to ultimate consumers for their personal, family and household use. Retailers are middlemen who procure goods from the wholesalers and sell the product to the end-users or consumers. They cater to the demand of the customers by providing a variety of products of different companies in one place. They also offer 'pre' and 'after-sales services' and communicate to customers about the features of the products. Types of Retail Stores: Specialty Store: They have a narrow product line and deep assortment. Department Store: They have several product lines with each operating as a separate department managed by specialist buyers or merchandisers. Supermarket: They are a relatively large, low cost, low margin, high volume, self-service operation designed to serve total needs for food, laundry and household products. Convenience Store: They are relatively small stores located near residential areas, open for long h

Human Development Report (HDR)

Human Development Report (HDR) is brought up by the UNDP at every calendar year, whereas the World Development Report is brought up by the World Bank at every financial year . HDR is based on the Human Development Index which was for the first time given by Mahbub-ul-Haq of Pakistan in 1990, in partnership with Indian Economist, Amartya Sen. The first HDR was published in 1990. HDR brings various indices: HDI (Human Development Index) - introduced in HDR 1990. GDI (Gender-Related Development Index) - introduced in HDR 1995. GEM (Gender Empowerment Measures) - introduced in HDR 1995. HPI (Human Poverty Index) - introduced in 1997. TAI (Technology Achievement Index) - Introduced in 2001. HDR Indices: The HDI measures the average achievement in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth. Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and th

The Commonwealth

The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as the Commonwealth and formerly as the British Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 54 independent sovereign States, all of which are former possessions of the British Empire, except for Mozambique, Rwanda and the United Kingdom itself. Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth, recognized by each State, Although the Queen heads the Commonwealth in a symbolic capacity, it is the Commonwealth Secretary-general who is the Chief Executive of the organization. The five largest Commonwealth nations by population are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and the United Kingdom. Tuvalu is the least populous member of the Commonwealth. The three largest Commonwealth nations by area are Canada, Australia and India. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a significant decision-making body that holds bi-annual meetings. Marlborough House, London houses the headquarters of the Commonwealth. There are 54 members of the Com