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Organisational Development

Organisational Development (OD) is the act, process or result of furthering, advancing or promoting the growth of an organization. Development is the act, mechanism, consequence or state of development, which in turn means advancing, promoting growth, developing the possibility of improving or improving something.

The OD strategy to change treats the organization as a system. it is a logically linked group of elements, principles and ideals. Conversely, it is a grouping or arrangement that interacts or communicates in such a way that a whole is formed. Thus, it views the organization as a whole and forms a relationship between the internal dynamics of the organization with the environment. It deals with interpersonal communication and self-acceptance of developing new abilities and skills.

According to Edgar Schein, "An organization is the planned coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goals through the division of labor and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility."

Characteristics of Organisational Development:

  • A planned strategy for organizational change with a long-term perspective.
  • Organisational Development always includes a strategy to change in collaboration.
  • OD programs emphasize ways to improve and enhance performance.
  • OD relies on a set of humanistic values concerning people and organizations.
  • It reflects a system approach where the subgroups are interlinked and interdependent.

Process of Organisational Development:

The OD process is based on an action research model that starts with a real problem or needs for change that has been identified. The process is carried out through evaluation, planning about the intervention implementation of the intervention, data collection to evaluate the intervention and whether satisfactory progress has been made or whether further intervention is necessary. It includes the following steps

Initial Problem Diagnosis: In the first step, management must try to find an overview of the situation in order to find the real problem. Senior staff should meet with specialists and experts in order to decide the type of program. The consultants will only meet different people in the organization and interview them to obtain some information.

Data Collection: At this level, the specialist will carry out surveys to ascertain the organization's climate and employees' behavioral problems. The specialist will meet people and groups who are away from their workplace environment to get responses to questions such as, what specific working conditions relate to most of their efficiency? What kind of circumstances affects the efficiency of their work? Also what changes do they want to actually make in the organization's work?

Data Feedback and Confrontation: The information gathered in the second stage will be provided to the task forces, which will be given the task of evaluating the data. All areas of contradiction will be only be mediated between themselves and preferences for change will be clearly set.

Planning Strategy for Fundamental Stage: The specialist will propose a change in the strategy at this stage. He will try to reshape the analysis o the issue into an appropriate action plan that includes the overall objectives for change,. He will also determine the simple approach to achieve these objectives and sequence of events of detailed implementation schemes.

Intervention in the System: Intervention in the system relates to the activities planned before and during the OD program. Such activities are planned to bring about certain system changes, which is OD's basic goal. External consultants can try to intervene in the system in various ways, such as training, consultants, negotiation, new team development etc.

Team Building: The consultant motivates the groups to evaluate how they actually work together during the entire process. The management consultant will teach them the benefits of free communication and trust as essential to the normal functioning of the group. The management consultant can work cooperatively in OD sessions with team managers and their subordinates to incentivize teamwork.

Evaluation: OD is a very lengthy process. Therefore, there is a great need for more careful monitoring, to obtain precise feedback upon what happens after the start of the OD program. This helps to make appropriate changes whenever possible.


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