Competency mapping is the procedure of identifying the competencies that are desired to perform work to effectively attain a desired set of goals of the firm. It comprises of breaking a given work into smaller activities and distinguishing competencies like skills, attitudes, managerial, behavioural, conceptual technical, knowledge etc are necessary for performing the same effectively.
A competency map includes all the behavioural models, skills, tasks and various competencies along with expertise required for performing a particular job. It emphasises factors that the company has highlighted as 'crucial or crucial' for realising the strategic goals.
It is a systematic process of identifying and distinguishing KSAs and behaviour essential for acquiring goals and sustaining necessary results. It is a process through which an individual can decide and assess its strength and weakness as a single person. It is required for appraisals, recruitment, selection, training and development and even job evaluation.
Steps involved in competency mapping:
Conducting job analysis: It is done by inquiring the managers to fill a position information questionnaire (PIQ). The PIQ can be given to managers to complete or the HR manager can take one on one interview as per the data in PIQ. The main objective of PIQ is to get an overview of what the manager/head feels are crucial behaviours that are required to perform a specific job.
Developing job descriptions on the basis of competencies: The inputs from the experts from different groups are carefully noted and converted into standard competencies. These are competencies are then reflected in the jobs descriptions.
Mapping: The competencies of separate job descriptions turn the bases for the assessment of performance. Competencies help in guiding the manager in performing more objective assessments on the basis of behaviours that are displayed or not.
Training and development: By mapping the competencies the HR manager identifies the competencies for which the individual need extra training or development. Competency mapping also helps the manager in focussing and directing the training programme on core competencies. It enhances the effectiveness of the training process as the individuals develop these abilities that are crucial for the success of the business.
Methods of Competency Mapping:
Competency mapping displays the performance level needed to be executed by the employees to achieve the goals of their job. However, competency mapping also lays the foundation for performance management. Organisations generally use various competency napping techniques to match the talent and capacities of the individuals with stipulated specific job goals. The job goal is in tandem with the organisational goals. The various techniques to measure competencies are
Assessment center: It improves the observation for a particular situation to evaluate the performance of the employee along with his growth potential with regard to specific job characteristics. Various simulation and discussion exercises are used to imitate the real-life demand of the job.
Applicants are requested to go through various scenarios while a qualified assessor notices and observes their performance. The situation aims at relieving the capacity, aptitude and skills of the individuals. This aids in identifying which applicants are good matches for the current and upcoming needs of the job.
Critical incidents technique: The critical incidents technique gathers data and analyses it to recognise job-specific behaviours which affect the failure or victory of an individual or collective group performing a definite job.
Data about distinct critical events, such as unique instances of accomplishment or failure is gathered through questionnaires or interviews immediately after the occurrence of the event. These events are then classified according to related job behaviours to disclose patterns of performance strengths or performance gaps.
Interviews: The interview of the candidate gives a direct understanding of the applicant's behaviours. It is an effective technique of gathering relevant information along with impressions about potential workers.
Interviewers must be ready with targeted questions which draw details about visible job experiences along with some clue about employee's deeply rooted values. It must tell about the candidate's outlook, values, motivation and temperament.
The interviewer then matches the record data with the competency map specifically created for the job to see who is the best match for the job.
Questionnaires: It is another approach for collecting information on the performance of work (job evaluation) along with job competencies. Various forms of questionnaires that are used in competency mapping comprise of the common metric questionnaires which lay interest on work activities and requirements.
It encompasses analysis about functional job analysis which define job characteristics and duties. It also conducts occupational analysis which gives the work elements required for all professions.
It includes a position analysis questionnaire that relates human characteristics with job characteristics. It comprises of work profiling system measuring aptitude and personality qualities. The multipurpose occupational system depicts the competencies and tasks for administration jobs.
- Aptitude tests: It identifies natural inclinations of the employee towards a specific area. This can be art or science. Aptitude tests help in predicting how well an individual will perform a given job, after being trained to perform such job.
- Achievement Tests: They quantify the level of ability and proficiency possessed by the person. It also depicts other achievements in learning different skills in certain areas such as language skills, mathematics and reasoning.