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Job Analysis: Benefits, Process, Components, Methods

 Job analysis is a formal and detailed examination of jobs to understand the tasks that need to be done and the skills required to do these tasks under this job. It is significant HR activity. Job analysis provides the analyst with basic data related to specific jobs in terms of duties, responsibilities, skills, knowledge, degree of risk etc. It investigates the responsibilities and duties that are necessary to perform the job. It tells what individuals do in their job and what is their requirement for performing the job satisfactorily.

Job analysis gives information that helps write job descriptions (what work is to be performed) and job specifications (what kind of skill, talent and knowledge is required, what kind of workforce is to be hired).

Role/Benefits of Job Analysis:

  • It helps in human resource planning to determine the number and kinds of jobs and qualifications needed to fill these jobs.
  • It makes the recruitment and selection process easier by way of the job description and job specification.
  • Placement, orientation, training and development programmes can be directed towards helping the employee learn activities required to perform a given job.
  • Job evaluation helps in determining the relative worth of various jobs by way of the job description. Job evaluation helps in ensuring the right pay remuneration.
  • Job analysis establishes standards of performance that help in evaluating performance appraisal.
  • Job specification, as part of job analysis, helps in vocational guidance and counselling employees.
  • Job analysis makes organisation redesigning possible through time and motion study, job specifications and work measurement.
  • Job analysis provides opportunities to trace out health hazards related to the job.. This helps minimise the chance of risks to the health and safety of employees.

Process of Job Analysis:

Organisational Analysis: To find linkages between jobs and organisational objectives through organisation charts and workflow charts.
Collection of Job Analysis Data: Gathering data about jobs from personal interviewing, observation method, positions analysis questionnaire, log of job incumbent.
Preparation of Job Description: It involves describing the contents of the job in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities etc.
Preparation of Job Specifications: It is a written statement of personnel attributes regarding traits, skills, training, qualification, experience needed to carry out the job.

Components of Job Analysis:

Job Description:

It is a written statement of what the job holder does, how it is to be done, what conditions it is done and why it is done. It throws light on job content, environment and conditions of employment. It defines the purpose and scope of a job.

Components of Job Description:

  • Job Title: designation, code and the department is mentioned in the job title.
  • Job Summary: A brief write-up about the job.
  • Job Activities: A description of the task to be done.
  • Working conditions: Time, working hours and days.

Job Specification:

It is a written statement of personal attributes in terms of skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) to perform a particular job. It is useful in the selection process to decide the right person.

Methods of Job Analysis:

Interview: Interviewing a group of people performing the same job, supervisor and employees.
Questionnaires: They can be structured list e.g. describe major duties of your job.
Observation: Personally observing the job of the employee.
Participant Logs/Dairy: Asking the employees to keep a log of activities they perform during the day and analyse it further.
Past Experience: Nothing the critical incidences described by workers.
Position Analysis Questionnaire: (PAQ) It is a quantitative technique. Position analysis consists of 194 items, which represents the role performed in a particular position or job.

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