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Showing posts from July, 2021

Human Resource Planning: Importance and Process

Human resource planning (HRP)  helps the management to anticipate shortages or surpluses of human resources in future and correct these imbalances before they become unmanageable and expensive. Through the HRP tool, management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places, at the right time for the maximum benefit of both employees and organisations. Importance of Human Resource Planning: The reservoir of talent in the organisation for all times. To prepare people for the future by training and motivational techniques. It helps in adjusting personnel with the expanding or contracting scales of operations. To cut costs by maintaining an appropriate manpower budget for each division and reduces overall cost. It helps in succession planning by preparing promising candidates in advance for senior positions. Process of Human Resource Planning: It is a process of matching the future and current needs of the organisation. Manpower planning is a continuous p

Strategic role of Human Resource Management

 The role of human resource management evolved in the last two decades. In the current context, HR managers are focussing on recruiting and managing the workforce in order to meet the strategic goals of the organisation. It has a key role in fulfilling the visions and mission of the company. Companies work and reach goals through their workforce. Hence, HRM has a relevant role as it provides the most competent employees to the organisation which further the objective of the company. Thus, there is an energies trends that combine the theories of HRM with strategic management. This is known as Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). It consists of decisions and actions that result in the formulation and implementation of strategies specially designed to achieve the goals of the organisation. Strategy is defined as a unified comprehensive and integrated plan designed to ensure that the basic objective of the enterprise is achieved. Strategies can be formulated at the top level which i

Job Analysis: Benefits, Process, Components, Methods

 Job analysis is a formal and detailed examination of jobs to understand the tasks that need to be done and the skills required to do these tasks under this job. It is significant HR activity. Job analysis provides the analyst with basic data related to specific jobs in terms of duties, responsibilities, skills, knowledge, degree of risk etc. It investigates the responsibilities and duties that are necessary to perform the job. It tells what individuals do in their job and what is their requirement for performing the job satisfactorily. Job analysis gives information that helps write job descriptions (what work is to be performed) and job specifications (what kind of skill, talent and knowledge is required, what kind of workforce is to be hired). Role/Benefits of Job Analysis: It helps in human resource planning to determine the number and kinds of jobs and qualifications needed to fill these jobs. It makes the recruitment and selection process easier by way of the job description and

Workforce Diversity: Features and Dimensions

 Workforce diversity is the difference between the members of the organisations. It is the characteristic that makes one employee different from other employees. Management of these diversities includes the creation of such organisational climate which encompasses this diversity and uses this variety as its competitive advantage. It is a valuable asset for the organisation because it helps in surviving in the competitive global world. Diversity is found at two levels Surface Level : These are the differences that are superficial such as gender, age etc. They do not share the perspective of the employees. Deep Level : These are the variances in the work performances, personality, value of the workforce which determines the similarity between people in due course of time when they learn about each other. Features of Workforce Diversity: It enforces the creation of an environment where heterogeneous groups work together in order to achieve organisational goals. Workforce diversity ensures

Organisational Climate: Factors Affecting, Levels and Dimensions

Organisational climate is also referred as an environmental determinant of human behaviour. It is the atmosphere, feeling or sense experienced by employees on daily or general basis in their organisation. Culture gives rise to organisational climate. Organisational climate comprises of overall impressions of the institutions that the members build with the processes, structures, policies and by interacting with each other. It refers to common views, members of an institution have about their institute and work atmosphere. According to Schein, "A climate can be locally created by what leaders do, what circumstances apply and what environments afford. A culture can evolve only out of mutual experience and shared learning." According to Moran, "Organisational climate is defined as the shared perceptions, feelings and attitudes that organisational members have about fundamental elements of the organisation, which reflects the established norms, values and attitudes of the or

Types of Organisation Culture

Clan Culture: Here, the working atmosphere is amiable. There are commonalities among the people and the entire organisation is equivalent to a large family. The leaders seem like fatherly figures while loyalty and tradition hold the organisation together. The sense of unity binds the organisation together. There is strong peer pressure. The leader here is the team builder and a facilitator. The values that drives the organisation are development, communication and commitment. Various theories like participation and human resource development prove effective. The leader uses strategies like open communication, HRD, empowerment etc are to improve the quality. Adhocracy Culture: Here, the working environment is creative and dynamic The leaders are innovative whereas the individuals take risks. The culture supports innovations and experiments and the future goal is to create resources and grow. The invention of new services or products is considered a success. Thus, this organisational cul

Ministry of Culture (India)

The Ministry of Culture is the Indian government ministry charged with preservation and promotion of art and culture in India. Lalit Kala Akademi Lalit Kala Akademi was established at New Delhi in 1954 to promote and propagate undertakings of Indian Art within and outside the country. The akademi has regional centres called Rashtriya Lalit Kala Kendras at Lucknow, Kolkata, Chennai, Garhi in New Delhi and Bhubaneshwar with workshop facilities in painting, sculpture, print making and ceramics. Sangeet Natak Akademi India's national academy for music, dance and drama is the first National Academy of the arts set-up by the republic of India. It was created by a resolution of the Ministry of Education, Government of India notified in the Gazette of India on June 1952. The akademi became functional in 1953. Dr P.V. Rajamannar was appointed as its first chairman. In 1961, the Sangeeth Natak Akademi was reconstituted by the government as a society and registered under the So

Aircraft Industry in India

The first aircraft in India was set up at Bangalore in 1940 under the name of Hindustan Aircraft Ltd it was a private company and was taken over by the government in 1942. Later on, it was merged into Aeronautics India Limited in 1964 to form Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. ( HAL ), Bangalore. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd has 12 divisions with 19 production units across 7 locations in the country. The main divisions of HAL where various parts of aircraft are produced: Nasik division: In Nasik division MIG airframe is manufactured. Koraput division: In Koraput division the engine for MIG aircraft is manufactured. Hyderabad division: In Hyderabad division electronic equipment for MIG is manufactured. Kanpur division: In Kanpur division transport aircraft are manufactured. Lucknow division: In luck division equipments and accessories for the aircraft are manufactured. Bangalore division: In Bangalore division research and development activities are carried out. The aircra

Shipping Industry in India

The first ship building factory in India was established at Visakhapatnam in 1941. It was later, adopted by the Indian Government in 1952 and named as ' Hindustan Shipyard Limited '. The major ship building centers in India are located at Kolkata, Goa, Mumbai and Kochi. The Kochi, Dockyard was developed by collaboration with Japan. The Kochi Dockyard is the largest and the most recent dockyard of the country whereas the Mazagaon dockyard (Mumbai) builds the navel ships for Indian Navy. India is one of the main maritime nations of the world with 6.8 million Gross Registered Tonnage rating, with 17 th position in the world. The Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) under Ministry of Shipping in India are: 1. Shipping Corporation of India, Mumbai This PSU was established on October 2, 1961. Website: www.shipindia.com 2. Hindustan Shipyard Ltd., Visakhapatnam The foundation stone of HSL was laid on June 22, 1941 by Dr. Rajendra Prasad. This PSU is engaged in shipbuildin

Religion, Script of Harappans and Decline of Harappan Civilization

Religion of Harappans Pashupati seal has been found from Mohenjodaro in which a Yogi figure has been depicted. The Yogi on the seal is surrounded by buffalo, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros and deer. hence, the Yogi is said to be proto-Shiva. Signs of phallic worship have been found. Harappans worshiped Mother Goddess. It is evident from the terracotta figurine recovered from Harappa. A building called Great Bath have been found at meant for ritual bathing. They were superstitious as they wore amulets. Harappans worshiped pipal tree. No evidence of temples have been found in the civilization. Script of Harrapans: The Harappans knew the art of writing. There are nearly 4,000 specimens of Harappan writing on stone seals and other objects. The Harappan script is not alphabetical but many pictographic. The Harappan script has not been deciphered so far. Script was considered of about 400 symbols, out of which 75 were original and remaining were their variants. Decline

Six Components of Bharat Nirman Programme

Bharat Nirman Programme is four year business plan to develop rural infrastructure. Government of India launched a time bound plan under Bharat Nirman in 2005 for implementation during four year period of 2005-2009. The six components included in Bharat Nirman programme under rural infrastructure are Roads Telephone Connections Irrigation Water supply Housing Electrification Roads In order to increase rural connectivity, a rural roads programme Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana ( PMGSY ) was launched in December 2000. As part of the programme, GOI intends that by the end of financial year 2008-09, every village of over 1000 population, or over 500 in hilly and tribal areas has an all weather road. To achieve the targets of Bharat Nirman, 146, 185km of road length is proposed to be constructed by 2009. This will benefit 66,802 unconnected eligible habitations in the country. Telephone Connections Under the Bharat Nirman Programme 66,822 revenue villages not havi

Female Reproductive System

Female reproductive system consists of the two ovaries, two oviducts (fallopian tubes), the uterus, cervix, a vagina, accessory genital glands, mammary glands, etc. In females, paired ovaries are located in the abdominal cavity near the kidney. The ovaries perform dual function of (i) production of female gamete (ovum) and (ii) secretion of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Each ovary is compared of ovarian follicles. At puberty, these follicles undergo maturation to produce ova. Near the posterior end of ovary, a funnel like structure leads into a long convoluted tube called fallopian tube. The fallopian tube from both sides open into a muscular structure, the uterus. Uterus opens into the vagina. Vagina is a tubular structure. it is also called birth canal. In female, urinary opening (urethra) and vaginal openings are separate. The ovaries start producing ovum (female gamete) at a definite age puberty (10-12 years). The ovarian follicles grow into mature follicle. U

Railway Engineering Industries and Institutes in India

Indian Railway is fully independent in the matter of building all its equipment. The industry is based on railway equipment was established as Peninsular Locomotive company at Singhbhum district of Jharkhand in 1921. Later, it was named as "Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company' (TELCO). Some of the railway production units in India are: Chittaranjan Locomotive Works ( CLW ), Chittaranjan: Steam locomotives & electric locomotives. Diesel Locomotive Works ( DLW ), Varanasi: Diesel locomotives. Wheel Axle Plant (WAP), Bangalore: Wheel Axle Plant. Diesel Loco Modernisation Works ( DMW ), Patiala: Diesel components & parts. Rail Coach Factory ( RCF ), Kapurthala, Punjab:  Rail coaches. Integral Coach Factory ( ICF ), Chennai: Coaching stock. Bharat Earth Movers Ltd., Bangalore : Rail coaches for Delhi Metro Rail corporation. Durgapur & Yelahanka: Wheel Axle Plant. Tatanagar: Meter gauge steam locomotives. Bhilai: Rail and sleeper cars. Perambur

The Peninsular Plateau of India

The Peninsular Plateau is a part of the ancient Gondwanaland and is in triangular shape. This plateau average height is between 600 to 900 m. It extends from alluvial plains of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar towards south and encompasses whole of the peninsula. Important Ranges in Peninsular Plateau The Aravali range: It is one of the oldest mountain ranges of the world of pre-cambrian period and is about 700 km long. It compares with applications mountain of USA. Aravalis are under the process of erosion and are called Relict mountains. It is also known as ' museum of minerals ' because majority of minerals are found here. It extends from Gujarat to Delhi and its last extension is Raisina hills in Delhi, over which Rashtrapati Bhavan is located. Gir mountains: These are located in Kathiawar region in Gujarat. This region is famous for Asiatic lions (Gir Lions). Western Ghats (Sahyadris): The Western Ghats extends from the mount of the river Tapi to the Cape of Kanyak

Coastal Plains of India

To the east and west of the peninsular plateau , two narrow strips of plain lands are found , which are respectively called Eastern Coastal Plain and Western Coastal Plain. Eastern Coastal and Western Coastal Plain are formed by the erosional and depositional & activities of the Sea waves and from the sediments brought by the peninsular rivers. Western Coastal plain Westeren coastal plain is 10 to 15 km wide and is narrower than eastern coastal plain. Western coast is divided into 4 parts: Kathiawar coast (Gujarat coast) Konkan coast (Maharstra coast) Canara coast(Karnataka coast) Malabar coast (Kerala coast) The Gujarat coastal plains are built up by alluvium brought by Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and Tapti rivers, all of which form large estuaries. Malabar coast contains lakes, lagoons and backwaters locally called Kayals. Vembaned Lake (Kerala) is largest of such back water lakes. Eastern Coastal plain Eastern coastal plain is 50 to 60 km wide and is bro