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Showing posts from June, 2021

About Four Anglo-Mysore Wars

The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of four wars fought in India over the three decades of the 18th century between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore. The fourth war ended with a result in the overthrow of the house of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and the dismantlement of Mysore to the benefit of the British East India Company, which won and took control of much of India. 1. First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-1769) In 1767 Mysore was a powerful state under Hyder Ali. In 1769, the first Anglo-Mysore war was fought in which Haider Ali defeated the British and Treaty of Madras was signed between them. Haider Ali occupied almost the whole of Carnatic. 2. Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) Warren Hastings attacked French port Mahe, which was in Haider Ali's territory. Haider Ali led a joint front with Nizam and Marathas and captured Arcot (Capital of Carnatic State). In July 1781, Haider Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Eyre Coote and saved Madras. In Dec

Classification of Soils in India

According to ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) soils are divided into 8 categories. they are alluvial soils, Black cotton soils, Red soils, Laterite soils, Mountainous or forest soils, Arid or desert soils, Saline and alkaline soils Peaty and marshy soils. Image source : Alluvial Soils: Alluvial soils cover 24% of land surface in India and is found in Indo Ganga - Brahmaputra plain, coastal plains and river valleys. These are also found in foothills regions in plenty. It contains sand, loam and clay in different proportion. There are two types of alluvial soils: Khadar - which are newer alluvium. it is the soil deposited by the rivers every year. It is more fertile than the Bangar. Bangar - which are older alluvium. It contains pebbles and calcium carbonates. The colour of alluvium soils can be grey, light brown or yellowish. these soils are very rich in chemicals like Potash, Phosphoric acid, lime and carbon compounds but are deficient in

Corporate Board Committess

 Board committees are set up when the organisation is large and there are complex issues that require systematic discussions or when there are numerous managers are to be held by the board. There are two types of board committees are as follows: Mandatary Committees: Audit Committees: Such committee will review the reports, vouchers, documents with the managers and independent auditors, companies press releases etc. They will also make a recommendation to the board regarding any reappointment or removal of any statutory auditor etc. Nomination Committee: They review and recommend revisions in the corporate governance practices of the company. The annual review of various programmes and policies of the organisation with regards to public policy and environmental sustainability. They also evaluate the composition of various committees. Remuneration Committee: It is especially governed by Clause 49 of the listing agreement. This committee works around the remuneration packages of the se

Ethical Dilemma

It is a paradox, problem or an issue that is confronted by an organisation, group or individual while making choice between conflicting claims, neither of which is clearly preferable or acceptable. It is a moral situation where the individual has to choose between two situations that are morally undesirable. As it is also a paradox, the choices to be made between two unethical situations is known as an ethical dilemma. According to Harrison, "An ethical dilemma is a complex situation a person (business) faces in which a decision must be made about the adequate action to be taken". According to PF Drucker, "Ethics deal with the right action of the individuals. Causes of Ethical Dilemma: Correction by management: The management may pressurise the group or the individual to act in a certain way. Often the companies are focused on generating profits and results. Hence, the individual may feel forced to act unethically. Discrimination or  Ambition: The individual may become

Water Transport in India

The Water transport provides the Cheapest source of transportation to any country. At present, there are about 14,500 km long navigable waterways in India. The length of water ways in India is maximum in Uttar Pradesh followed by West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Kerla. The Buckingham Canal (640 km) long is the longest navigable canal of the country. The Internal Waterways Authority of India was established in 1986 for the purpose of development maintenance and regulation of the internal waterways of India. Its headquarters is in Kolkata. Inland Water Transport Inland water transport only accounts for 0.15% of domestic transportation. Some of the important inland waterways are: NW-1: Haldia (West Bengal) to Allahabad (1620 kms) on river Ganga. NW-2: Dibrigarh (assam) to Dhuburi (Assam, 891 km) on river Brahmaputra. NW-3: kollam (Kerla) to Kottapuram (Kerla) on West Coast (168 kms) along with Champakare canal (14 km) and Udyogmandal Canal (23 kms). NW-4: Kakinada

Five Sources oof Ethical Standards

The Utility Approach: It deals with analysing the cost and benefits of the decision. The basis of moral activity in the utilitarian approach is based on the result of the act. If the net benefit exceeds the overall cost, then the act is considered morally right. The ethical corporate action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected-customers, employees, shareholders, the community and the environment.  Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all parties through death, injuries, and destruction. The utilitarian approach deals with consequences; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done. The Rights Approach: Other philosophers and ethicist suggest that ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. It focuses on individual entitlement. If the act guarantees individual rights, then it is considered to be morally corr

Policies of British Empire in India

The administrative policy of the Company underwent frequent changes during the long period between 1757 to 1857. To increase the Company's profit and to be sustainable for long term the British hold over India, they have passed many acts in India during there period so that trade and exploitation of resources with India can be carried on without an disturbances. Economic Policy in India by Britishers The East India company was a purely trading company dealings with import of goods and precious metals into India and export of species and textiles. The East Indian Company used revenue from Bengal to finance experts of Indian goods. The Company used its political power to monopoly trade and dictate terms to the weavers of Bengal. Land Revenue System in India by Britishers Zamindari System Zamindari System (Permanent Settlement) was introduced in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and districts of Banaras and northern districts of Madras by Lord Cornwallis in 1793. John Shore plan

Tools and Techniques in Decision-making

Decision Tree: It is a chart, graph or model that focuses on each event and its outcomes. It also focuses on the likelihood of occurrences of these events. They are used in quantitative decision making. The diagram consists of a tree-shaped figure which shows a course of action. The branch of tree represents various outcomes. It also presents if a certain course of action is selected then what outcomes will follow it. These outcomes are mutually exclusive. Delhi Technique: It helps in estimating the probability of occurrence of future happenings. It involves a written process where a group of people fill their responses in multiple questionnaires. There are no physical meetings and discussion. Every new questionnaire is based on the information collected from the previous questionnaire. The process ceases when the group agrees to a single decision. The responses of members are kept anonymous. Decision Matrix: All the options of a decision are presented in the reform of a table or mat

Cardinal Utility Theory

 Classical economists like Carl Menger, Jeremy Bentham, Leon Walras and neo-classical economists like Alfred Marshall believe that utility can be measured in quantitative figures just as height and weight. It gives absolute figures of utility. Assumptions of Cardinal Utility Theory: It is assumed that the consumer is rational in nature, he will spend his money on that commodity first which yields the highest utility and the last which gives the least utility. Utilities derived from different commodities are independent of each other. Limited money income of a consumer to spend on goods. The consumer tries to maximise his satisfaction with spending. It is assumed that the utility gained from the successive units of a commodity consumed, decreases as a person consumes more of them. The marginal utility of money remains constant, whatever be the level of a consumer income. Unity of additive U n = U.x 1 + U.x 2 + ... + U.x n Limitations of Cardinal Utility Theory: The utility is

Important Acts in India Before Independence

Some of the Important acts in Indian before Independence August 15th 1947 are The Regulating Act, 1773, The Pitts India act, 1784, The Charter Acts The Government of India Acts and The Indian council Acts. The Regulating Act, 1773 The Regulating Act, 1773 was the first attempted by British Parliament to regulate the affairs of the Company in India. this act also brought an end to Dual system of Government of India. This was the first attempt towards Centralised Administration. In this act, Governor of Bengal became Governor General for all British territories in India. Bombay and Madras Presidency subordinated to Bengal Presidency in certain matters. Supreme Court to be set up at Calcutta and also founded Calcutta Madarasa. The Pitts India Act, 1784 The Pitts India Act, 1784 ( The East India Company Act 1784 ) gave the British Government supreme control over the Company's affairs and its administration in India. It established dual system of governance: Government

Centralisation: Introduction, Advantages and Disadavantages

 According to Louis A Allen, "centralisation is the systematic and consistent reservation of authority at central points within the organisation." Power and authority are concentrated at the top levels only. It facilitates in the early stages of organisational growth to provide for integration among all the departments to achieve a common goal. The top management is responsible for making key decisions and subordinates and lower departments are only into the implementation of rules. The lower department does not have authority over its functions. However, they are accountable to the higher management. The top-level formulates policies, middle-level managers operate the policies and lower-level management performs the work in reality. Advanatges of Centralisation: It provides an opportunity for new managers to develop personal leadership. It facilitates the integration of efforts of all parts of the organisation. Duplication of efforts and activities are avoided. Emergencies c