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Theories and Approaches of Management

Scientific Management (Taylor's Theory): This theory synthesised and evaluates the work flows of an organisation. It aims at enhancing labour productivity and economic efficiency. Thus, it applies science, processes and standards in management.

Administrative Theory (Fayol's Theory): Henry Fayol propounded the theory and gave 14 principles for general management and administration. It is also known as administrative theory. It gives a broader concept of the process of management.

Bureaucracy (Max Weber): This theory aims at providing a systematic framework of an ideal organisation, which strives at achieving economic effectiveness and efficiency. It also structures a company of institution in a hierarchical form with defined levels of management.

Hawthrone Experiments: These were series of experiments that were conducted in the 1920s. It discovered that labours are extremely responsive to any form of additional attention given to them by their managers. This theory propounds that workers feel motivated when the managers show interest in their work. It gives them a sense of belongingness. It advocates that though financial incentives are motivating but social incentives and issues are correspondingly significant in worker's productivity.

System Theory: It is one of the most prevalent organisations in modern management. The institutions are either considered to be an open or a closed system. There is an interaction with the outside environment in open system whereas there is no such interaction in closed system. An organisation is also  a system as it comprises of machines, technologies, assets and humans. A closed system is not affected by the external environment, but an open system is affected. Hence, this theory studies an organisation as a system.

Chaos Theory: This theory finds its roots in mathematical science and adapted in management. It treats organisation as a system, but it is complicated, non-linear and dynamic. Non-linear system mplies that one variable is not affected by the change in other variable. Dynamism here implies the components of the organisation system keeps changing over period of time. Even simple organisation systems result into complex behaviours which results into chaotic and disorderly system. This theory propounds that the management should know how to regulate the patterns of work when an organisation exists in the state of chaos. This is usually done by facilitating change in the organisation.

Contingency Approach: It is a modern theory of management, also known as the situational approach. It implies that one size does not fit to all, i.e, the management's efficiency is dependent on the interaction between behaviours or the management and situations in the organisations. The manager must change his behaviour and decisions on the basis of circumstances. Thus, It is situational approach meaning, managing according to the situation.

Behavioural Management Theory: In this theory, the organisation is treated as social system of human along with the technical-physical system. It lays emphasis on studying an individual's belief's, values, attitudes in order to increase his productivity and organisation's efficiency.

Human Relation Approach: It is propounded by Elton Mayo. It focuses on the study of motivation, conflict and informal organisation. It focuses on the study of motivation, conflict and informal organisation. It focuses on management getting things done with and through the people, thus employees should not be treated as machines rather individuals with different behaviours. The manager must learn the inter-personal relations between the individuals in workplace.

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