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Introduction to Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) from 2350-1750 BC

  • Indus Valley Civilization (2350-1750 BC) is also called as Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first site to be excavated in 1921 under the supervision of Daya Ram Sahni.
  • The known extent of the civilization in the west is upto Sutkagendor in Baluchistan; Alamgirpur South; and Manda (Jammu and Kashmir) in the north.
  • Indus Valley civilization belongs to Bronge Age/ Chalcolithic age. Hence, it is also called bronze age civilization.
  • Contemporary civilizations of Harappan civilization are Mesopotamian or Sumerian civilization, Egyptian civilization and Chinese civilization.

Important Sites of Harappan Civilization

S.No
Site
Location
River bank
1 Harappa
Montegomari, Punjab (Pakistan)
Ravi
2 Mohenjodaro
Larkana, Sindh (Pakistan)
Indus
3 Sutkagenoor
Baluchistan (Pakistan)
Dashta
4 Chanhudaro Sindh (Pakistan) Indus
5 Rangpur Ahmedabad (India) Meedar
6 Kalibangan Ganganagar (Rajasthan) Ghaggar
7 Lothal Ahmedabad Sabarmati & Bhogva
8 Banwali Hissar (Haryana) Saraswati
Note: large number of Harappan Civilization sites were found in Gujarat.

General Facts About Some Sites
1. Harappa
  • Working floors consisting of rows of circular brick platforms which were meant for threshing grain have been found here.
  • Six granaries and sixteen agnikundas (firepits) have been found here.
  • People of Harappa knew the process of making tarcoal.
  • Main gate for the entry in the houses of Harappa was in the north direction.
  • R-37 cementry have been found here.
  • Terracotto figurine of Mother goddess have been found here.

2. Mohenjodaro
  • Mohenjodaro was discovered in 1922 under the supervision of R.D. Bannerji.
  • The literal meaning of Mohenjodaro in sindhi language is mound of the dead.
  • The Great Bath, a granary, big halls, a bronze statue of a dancing girl, idol of a yogi and numerous seals have been found here.
  • The evidences of a assembly hall and proper planned houses with a kitchen and courtyard have been found at Mohenjodaro.
  • Seven layers of Mohenjodaro city directs that the city was destroyed and rebuilt seven times.

3. Lothal
  • A dockyard have been found at Lothal.
  • In 1957, Lothal was discovered by S.R. Rao in Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat.
  • Red & black clay pots, copper tools, brick built tank like structure, a bread making factory and a seal from Iran have been found at Lothal.
  • Linear scale of bronze have been found here.

4. Kalibangan
  • Kalibangan was not as well planned or organised as Mohenjodaro was.
  • It did not have a drainage system.
  • A number of agnikundas (firepits) have been found here.
  • Kalibangan was discovered in 1953. it is located in upper Rajasthan.
  • It saw two cultural phases viz. Pre-Harappan and Harappan.
  • A ploughed field have been found here.

5. Dhaulavira
  • Dhaulavira in Gujarat was discovered in 1992 by J.P. Joshi.
  • Dhaulavira shows all the three phases of Harappan civilization.
  • A script consists of big alphabets has been found on a gate in Dhaulavira.

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