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Showing posts from December, 2020

Indian Councils Act of 1909

Indian Councils Act of 1909 is also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (Lord Morley was the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India). The features of Indian Councils Act of 1909 were as follows: It considerably increased the size of the legislative councils, both Central and provincial. The number of members in the Central legislative council was raised from 16 to 60. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform. It retained official majority in the Central legislative council, but allowed the provincial legislative councils to have nonofficial majority. It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both the levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget and so on. It provided (for the first time) for the association of Indians with the executive councils of the Viceroy and Governors. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join t

National Policy on Information Technology

The vision of the National Policy on Information Technology (2012) is to strengthen and enhance India’s position as the Global IT hub and to use IT and cyber space as an engine for rapid, inclusive and substantial growth in the national economy. The policy seeks to achieve the twin goals of bringing the full power of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) within the reach of the whole of India and harnessing the capability and human resources of the whole of India to enable India to emerge as the Global Hub and Destination for IT and ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) by 2020. The focus of the policy is therefore on deployment of ICT in all sectors of the economy and on providing IT solutions to the world. The objectives/thrust areas of the policy are as follows: To increase revenues of IT and ITES Industry from 100 Billion USD currently to 300 Billion USD by 2020 and expand exports from 69 Billion USD currently to 200 Billion USD by 2020. To gain significant globa

Indian Councils Act of 1892

The features of Indian Councils Act of 1892 were as follows: It increased the number of additional (non-official) members in the Central and provincial legislative councils, but maintained the official majority in them. It increased the functions of legislative councils and gave them the power of discussing the budget and addressing questions to the executive. It provided for the nomination of some non-official members of the (a) Central Legislative Council by the viceroy on the recommendation of the provincial legislative councils and the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, and (b) that of the provincial legislative councils by the Governors on the recommendation of the district boards, municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamin-dars and chambers. ‘The act made a limited and indirect provision for the use of election in filling up some of the non-official seats both in the Central and provincial legislative councils. The word “election” was, however, not used in the Act. The proc

Indian Councils Act of 1861

After the great revolt of 1857, the British Government felt the necessity of seeking the cooperation of the Indians in then administration of their country. In pursuance of this policy of association, three acts were enacted by the British Parliament in 1861, 1892 and 1909. The Indian Councils Act of 1861 is an important landmark in the constitutional and political history of India. The features of Indian Councils Act of 1861 were as follows: It made a beginning of the representative institutions by associating Indians with the law-making process. It, thus, provided that the Viceroy should nominate some Indians as non-official members of his expanded council. In 1862, Lord Canning, the then Viceroy, nominated three Indians to his legislative council–the Raja of Benaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao. It initiated the process of decentralisation by restoring the legislative powers to the Bombay and Madras Presidencies. It, thus, reversed the centralising tendency that start

Government of India Act of 1858

This significant Act was enacted in the wake of the Revolt of 1857 also known as the First War of Independence or the ‘sepoy mutiny’. The act known as the Act for the Good Government of India, abolished the East India Company, and transferred the powers of Government, territories and revenues to the British Crown. The features of Government of India Act of 1858 were as follows: It provided that India, henceforth, was to be governed by, and in the name of, Her Majesty. It changed the designation of the Governor-General of India to that of Viceroy of India. He (Viceroy) was the direct representative of the British Crown in India. Lord Canning, thus, became the first Viceroy of India. It ended the system of double Government by abolishing the Board of Control and Court of Directors. It created a new office, Secretary of State for India, vested with complete authority and control over Indian administration. The secretary of state was a member of the British Cabinet and was responsible ulti

Charter Act of 1833

 This Act was the final step towards centralisation in British India. Features of the Act: It made the Governor-General of Bengal as the Governor-General of India and vested in him all civil and military powers. Thus, the act created, for the first time, a Government of India having authority over the entire territorial area possessed by the British in India. Lord William Bentick was the first governor-general of India. It deprived the governor of Bombay and Madras of their legislative powers. The Governor-General of India was given exclusive legislative powers for the entire British India. The laws made under the previous acts were called as Regulations while laws made under this act were called as Acts. It ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body, which became a purely administrative body. It provided that the company’s territories in India were held by it ‘in trust for His Majesty, His heirs and successors’. The Charter Act of 1833 attempted to introduce a

Charter Act of 1813

The features of Charter Act of 1813 were as follows: It abolished the trade monopoly of the company in India i.e., the Indian trade was thrown open to all British merchants. However, it continued the monopoly of the company over trade in tea and trade with China. It asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Company’s territories in India. It allowed the Christian missionaries to come to India for the purpose of enlightening the people. It provided for the spread of western education among the inhabitants of the British territories in India. It authorised the Local Governments in India to impose taxes on persons. They could also punish the persons for not paying taxes.

Pitt’s India Act of 1784

The next important act was the Pitt’s India Act of 1784. The features of this Act were as follows: It distinguished between the commercial and political functions of the Company. It allowed the Court of Directors to manage the commercial affairs, but created a new body called Board of Control to manage the political affairs. Thus, it established a system of double government. It empowered the Board of Control to supervise and direct all operations of the civil and military government or revenues of the British possessions in India. Thus, the act was significant for two reasons: first, the Company’s territories in India were for the first time called the ‘British possessions in India’; and second, the British Government was given the supreme control over Company’s affairs and its administration in India.

Charter Act of 1793

The features of Charter Act of 1793 were as follows: It extended the overriding power given to Lord Cornwallish over his council, to all future Governor-Generals and Governors of Presidencies. It gave the Governor-General more powers and control over the governments of the subordinate Presidencies of Bombay and Madras. It extended the trade monopoly of the Company in India for another period of twenty years. It provided that the Commander-in-Chief was not to be a member of the Governor-General’s council, unless he was so appointed. It laid down that the members of the Board of Control and their staff were, henceforth, to be paid out of the Indian revenues.

National Population Policy

A National Population Policy was adopted in 2000. It provides a framework for advancing goals and prioritising strategies during the next decade to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the people of India. It states that the objective of economic and social development is to improve the quality of lives people lead to enhance their well-being and to provide them with opportunities and choices to become productive assets in society. The objectives of the policy are mentioned below: The immediate objective is to address the un-met needs for contraception, health care infrastructure and health personnel and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care. The medium-term objective is to bring the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to replacement levels by 2010, through a vigorous implementation of inter-sectoral operational strategies. The long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045, at a level consistent with the requirements of su

Amending Act of 1781

 In a bid to rectify the defects of the Regulating Act of 1773, the British Parliament passed the Amending Act of 1781 , also known as the Act of Settlement . The features of this Act were as follows: It exempted the Governor-General and the Council from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court for the acts done by them in their official capacity. Similarly, it also exempted the servants of the company from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court for their official actions. It excluded the revenue matters and the matters arising in the collection of revenue from the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It provided that the Supreme Court was to have jurisdiction over all the inhabitants of Culcutta. It also required the court to administer the personal law of the defendants i.e., Hindus were to be tried according to the Hindu law and Muslims were to be tried according to the Mohammedan law. It laid down that the appeals from the Provincial Courts could be taken to the Governor-General-in-Counc

Regulating Act of 1773

This act was of great constitutional importance as (a) it was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the East India Company in India; (b) it recognised, for the first time, the political and administrative functions of the Company; and (c) it laid the foundations of central administration in India. The features of this Act were as follows: It designated the Governor of Bengal as the ‘Governor- General of Bengal’ and created an Executive Council of four members to assist him. The first such GovernorGeneral was Lord Warren Hastings. It made the governors of Bombay and Madras presidencies subordinate to the governor-general of Bengal, unlike earlier, when the three presidencies were independent of one another. It provided for the establishment of a Supreme Court at Calcutta (1774) comprising one chief justice and three other judges. It prohibited the servants of the Company from engaging in any private trade or accepting presents or bribes fr

National Policy on Child Labour

 A National Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987. It contains the action plan for tackling the problem of child labour. It envisages: A legislative action plan for strict enforcement of Child Labour Act and other labour laws. Focusing and convergence of general development programmes for benefiting working children wherever possible. Project-based plan of action for launching of projects for the welfare of working children in areas of high concentration of child labour. In pursuance of the above policy, the National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme was started in 1988 to rehabilitate the working children. The Scheme seeks to adopt a sequential approach with a focus on rehabilitation of children working in hazardous occupations and processes in the first instance. Under the Scheme, after a survey of child labour engaged in hazardous occupations and processes has been conducted, children are to be withdrawn from these occupations and processes and then put into special schools

National Policy for Children

The first National Policy for Children was adopted in 1974. This policy was revised and replaced by a new policy in 2013. The new National Policy for Children (2013) reaffirms the government’s commitment to the realisation of the rights of all children in the country. It recognises every person below the age of eighteen years as a child and that childhood is an integral part of life with a value of its own, and a long term, sustainable, multi-sectoral, integrated and inclusive approach is necessary for the harmonious development and protection of children. The policy lays down twelve guiding principles that must be respected by national, state and local governments in their actions and initiatives affecting children. They are: Every child has universal, inalienable and indivisible human rights. The rights of children are interrelated and interdependent. Every child has the right to life, survival, development, education, protection and participation. Right to life, survival and develop

National Policy on Open Standards for E-Governace

The Government of India (GoI) has taken major initiatives to accelerate the development and implementation of e-Governance and to create right environments for introducing G2G, G2B, G2E and G2C services within the country. A National Policy on Open Standards for e-Governance was notified in November 2010. It provides a set of guidelines for the consistent, standardised and reliable implementation of e-Governance solutions. It has been designed to ensure seamless interoperability of various e-Governance solutions developed by multiple agencies. It also aims to improve the technology choices available and avoid vendor lock-in. The policy is applicable to all systems used for e-Governance. All standards used in any new e-Governance Systems (including all inter-department and intra-department systems) and Government to public (including businesses) systems must adhere to this policy. For legacy systems, it must be ensured that interface with other systems from the legacy system must adhere

National Policy for Farmers

The Government had constituted a National Commission on Farmers in 2004 under the chairmanship of Dr. M.S. Swaminathan. The Commission submitted its final report in 2006. Based on the recommendations made by the Commission, the “National Policy for Farmers, 2007” has been formulated and approved. The goals of the policy are: To improve economic viability of farming by substantially increasing the net income of farmers and to ensure that agricultural progress is measured by advances made in this income. To protect and improve land, water, bio-diversity and genetic resources essential for sustained increase in the productivity, profitability and stability of major farming systems by creating an economic stake in conservation. To develop support services including provision for seeds, irrigation, power, machinery and implements, fertilizers and credit at affordable prices in adequate quantity for farmers. To strengthen the bio-security of crops, farm animals, fish and forest trees for saf

National Policy for Persons with Disabilities

The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities was adopted in 2006. It recognises that persons with disabilities are a valuable human resource for the country and seeks to create an environment that provides them equal opportunities, protection of their rights and full participation in society. The policy emphasises upon the fact that a majority of persons with disabilities can lead a better quality of life if they have equal opportunities and effective access to rehabilitation measures. The salient features of the policy are: Physical rehabilitation, which includes early detection and intervention, counseling and medical interventions and provision of aids and appliances. Educational rehabilitation which includes vocational training. Economic rehabilitation, for a dignified life in society. It includes employment in the public as well as private sector and self-employment. Development of rehabilitation professionals. Creation of a barrier-free environment. Provision of social secur

The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO)

The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) is responsible for coordination of statistical activities in the country, evolving and maintaining statistical standards. Its activities include national income accounting, conduct of annual survey of industries, economic census and its follow up surveys, compilation f index of industrial production, as well as consumer prices indices for urban non-manual employees, human development statistics, gender statistics, imparting training in official statistics, five year plan relating to work development of statistics in the states and Union Territories, dissemination of statistical information, work relating to trade, energy, construction and environment statistics, revision of national industrial classification etc. It has a well equipped graphical unit. The CSO is headed by the Director-General who is assisted by 2 Additional Directors-General and 4 Deputy Directors-General, Directors & Joint Directors and other supporting staff. The CSO is

National Urban Sanitation Policy

The vision of the National Urban Sanitation Policy (2008) is that “all Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized, healthy and liveable and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcome for all their citizens with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.” In order to achieve the above goal, the policy suggests the undertaking of the following activities: Generating awareness about sanitation and its linkages with public and environmental health amongst communities and institutions. Promoting mechanisms to bring about and sustain behavioural changes aimed at adoption of healthy sanitation practices. Promoting access to households with safe sanitation facilities (including proper disposal arrangements). Promoting community-planned and managed toilets for groups of households who have constraints of space, tenure or economic constraints in gaining access to individual facilities. Adequate availability and 100% u

Respiratory System

 Important Respiratory Organs: The human respiratory system consists of external nares or nistrils, nasal cavity, nasopharnyx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchiole and lungs. The air enters into the nasal cavity through the nostrils. Larynx is a small box and it forms the connection between pharynx and the windpipe or trachea. Larynx is also known as voice box. Larynx is covered by pieces of cartilage forming a box. In males, the adam's apple is the protuding cartilage of the voice box. Trachea is a tubular structure of about 12 cm in length and 2.5 cm in diameter. Lungs are paired structure present in the thoracic or pleural cavity. During inhalation, diaphragm contracts and lungs increases while during exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and the lungs are compressed. The cycle of breathing (ventilation of lungs) consists of three phases: Inspiration Expiration and Pause Inspiration is an active process. It is the result of muscle contraction. Expiration is an passive process. It is