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Universal Human Rights

Human rights are those rights are entitled merely by virtue of being humans. They are inalienable and inviolable rights of all human beings. They derive from the inherent dignity of human beings. They are essential for human survival and human development.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

The Universal Declaration of human rights was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948. This declaration represents the first international expression of human rights to which all human beings are entitled. It is described as the 'In6ternational Magna Carta'.

The first two articles contain the basic principles underlying all human rights. They, state as follows:

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

Article 2: Everyone is entitled to all human rights and freedoms, without distraction of any kind such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other states.

Articles 3 to 21 consist of civil and political rights. They are as under:

Article 3: Right to life, liberty and security.

Article 4: Feedom from life and servitude.

Article 5: Freedom from torture and inhuman punishment.

Article 6: Right to recognition as person before law.

Article 7: Right to equality before law.

Article 8: Right to judicial remedy.

Article 9: Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile.

Article 10: Right to a fair trial and public hearing.

Article 11: Right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty.

Article 12: Right to privacy and reputation.

Article 13: Right to freedom movement.

Article 14: Right to seek asylum.

Article 15: Right to nationality.

Article 16: Right to nationality.

Article 17: Right to own property.

Article 18: Freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

Article 19: Freedom from opinion, expression and information.

Article 20: Freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

Article 21: Right to participate in government and equal access to public service.

Articles 22 to 27 contain economic, social and cultural rights. They are mentioned below:

Article 22: Right to social security.

Article 23: Right to work and equal pay for equal work.

Article 24: Right to rest and leisure.

Article 25: Right to adequate standard of living for health and well-being including food, clothing, housing, medical care, social services and security.

Article 26: Right to education.

Article 27: Right to participation in cultural life and community.

The last three articles specify the context within which all the human rights are to be enjoyed. This, they state as under:

Article 28: Everyone is entitled to a social international order in which the above rights and freedom can be fully realised.

Article 29: The exercise of the above rights and freedom shall be limited for the purpose of securing recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for meeting the requirements of mortality, public order and general welfare.

Article 30: No state, group or person has any right to engage in any activity aimed at the destruction of the above rights and freedoms.


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