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Retail Marketing

Retail marketing includes activities and processes of selling to ultimate consumers for their personal, family and household use. Retailers are middlemen who procure goods from the wholesalers and sell the product to the end-users or consumers. They cater to the demand of the customers by providing a variety of products of different companies in one place. They also offer 'pre' and 'after-sales services' and communicate to customers about the features of the products. Types of Retail Stores: Specialty Store: They have a narrow product line and deep assortment. Department Store: They have several product lines with each operating as a separate department managed by specialist buyers or merchandisers. Supermarket: They are a relatively large, low cost, low margin, high volume, self-service operation designed to serve total needs for food, laundry and household products. Convenience Store: They are relatively small stores located near residential areas, open for long h
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Human Development Report (HDR)

Human Development Report (HDR) is brought up by the UNDP at every calendar year, whereas the World Development Report is brought up by the World Bank at every financial year . HDR is based on the Human Development Index which was for the first time given by Mahbub-ul-Haq of Pakistan in 1990, in partnership with Indian Economist, Amartya Sen. The first HDR was published in 1990. HDR brings various indices: HDI (Human Development Index) - introduced in HDR 1990. GDI (Gender-Related Development Index) - introduced in HDR 1995. GEM (Gender Empowerment Measures) - introduced in HDR 1995. HPI (Human Poverty Index) - introduced in 1997. TAI (Technology Achievement Index) - Introduced in 2001. HDR Indices: The HDI measures the average achievement in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth. Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and th

The Commonwealth

The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as the Commonwealth and formerly as the British Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 54 independent sovereign States, all of which are former possessions of the British Empire, except for Mozambique, Rwanda and the United Kingdom itself. Queen Elizabeth II is the Head of the Commonwealth, recognized by each State, Although the Queen heads the Commonwealth in a symbolic capacity, it is the Commonwealth Secretary-general who is the Chief Executive of the organization. The five largest Commonwealth nations by population are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and the United Kingdom. Tuvalu is the least populous member of the Commonwealth. The three largest Commonwealth nations by area are Canada, Australia and India. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) is a significant decision-making body that holds bi-annual meetings. Marlborough House, London houses the headquarters of the Commonwealth. There are 54 members of the Com

Sport Awards in India

Arjuna Awards: The Arjuna Awards were established instituted in 1961. To be eligible for the Award, a sportsperson should have had not only good performance consistently for the previous three years at the international level with excellence for the year for which the Award is recommended but also should have shown qualities of leadership, sportsmanship and sense of discipline. The Award consists of a statuette, a scroll of honor, ceremonial dress and a Cash Award of Rs. 5.00 lakh will be presented to the winners in a function to be held at a place and on a date to be decided by the Government of India. No Award will be made for a second time to the same person. From the year 2001, the award is given only in disciplines falling under the following categories: Olympic Games / Asian Games / Commonwealth Games / World Cup / World Championship Discipline and Cricket Indigenous Games Sports for the Physically Challenged. Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award: Major Dhyan

Bharat Nirman Programme

Bharat Nirman Programme  is a four-year business plan to develop rural infrastructure. The government of India launched a time-bound plan under Bharat Nirman in 2005 for implementation during four year period, 2005-2009. The six components included under this rural infrastructure program are Roads Telephone connections Irrigation Water supply Housing and Electrification. 1. Roads: In order to give a boost to rural connectivity, a rural roads programmer Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) was launched in December 2000. As part of the program, GOI intends that by the end of the financial year 2008-09, every village of over 1000 population, over 500 in hilly and tribal areas has an all-weather road. To achieve the targets of Bharat Nirman, 1465, 185 km of road length is proposed to be constructed by 2009. This will benefit 66,802 unconnected eligible habitations in the country. 2. Telephone Connections: Under the Bharat Nirman Programme 66, 822 revenue villages to havi

National Statistical Commission (NSC)

The Government of India ordered the setting up of a permanent National Statistical Commission (NSC) on 1st June 2005 on the recommendation of the C. Rangarajan Commission. The National Statistical Commission assumed charge on 12th July 2006. Professor Suresh Tendulkar became the first chairperson of the NSC. Constitution of NSC A part-time chairperson who will be an eminent statistician or social scientist. Four part-time members, one each from the following fields of specialization and experience in economic statistics in such areas as agriculture, industry, infrastructure, trade or finance. social and environmental statistics in such areas as population, health, education, labor and employment or environment. statistical operations in such areas as censuses, surveys, statistical information systems or information technology. national accounts, statistical modeling or state statistical systems. The Secretary, Planning Comm

Demand Forecasting

Demand forecasting is a systematic process involving anticipation of demand for the commodity or services of a company in the future under certain competitive forces and uncontrollable forces. According to Evan J Douglas . "Demand forecasting is an estimate of sales during a specified future period based on the proposed marketing plan and a set of particular uncontrollable competitive forces." Significance of Demand Forecasting: It fulfills the objective or organization and helps in the preparation of the budget. It establishes production and employment in the organization. It helps in expansion or organization and facilities managerial decision. Objectives of Demand Forecasting: Short-term Objectives: Production policy Price policy Controlling sales Arranging finance Long-term Objectives: Determination of production capacity Planning long-term activities Factors Affecting Demand Forecasting: They can be producer goods, consumer goods or services. It is dependent on informati